In recent years, FRP yacht manufacturing has become a mature technology in China. Basically, the yacht's hull, deck, upper deck, flybridge and other large parts and small accessories are made of FRP material, which is easy to form and easy to purchase Manufacture of yachts with low cost, short construction period, and bearing strength enough to be under 95 feet.
At present, the general fiberglass construction methods of yachts mainly include two methods of hand layup and vacuum adsorption.
The hand layup method is the basic construction method of FRP yachts. Most of them are the best construction methods for yachts under 60 feet. It is not easy to fail during construction, and there is no restriction on the appearance of the product. As the name implies, the resin, felt and cloth are layered by hand, and the required construction period is relatively long. The hull, deck, flybridge and yacht all fiberglass accessories can use this method.
Vacuum adsorption method is a relatively new process in recent years, and is generally used for the construction method of fast ships over 60 feet. The construction method is to place the fiberglass layer on the mold, lay the guide cloth and guide tube and some auxiliary accessories as needed, cover and fix it with plastic film, then seal with vacuum bag and sealant, and then seal A good glass fiber layer is vacuumed and then introduced into the resin for one-time molding, which is a very effective molding method. And save labor and time, light product quality, less air bubbles, less resin consumption, increased strength and so on. However, more one-time auxiliary materials are needed, and the comprehensive cost calculation is comparable to the hand layup method. It is certain that the weight of the ship will be lighter and better. In contrast, the weight of the hull can reduce the speed of the same power ship, which will naturally be faster.
Basic materials and equipment for vacuum adsorption:
Vacuum using resin
Glass fiber biaxial composite felt, continuous felt
Vacuum curing agent
Stripping cloth, diversion net, vacuum bag mold, spray glue, sealing tape, vacuum feed pipe, vacuum exhaust pipe, winding pipe, tee joint, vacuum leak detector, resin collector and vacuum pump / gas storage tank Vacuum equipment
Basic working process of vacuum adsorption method:
Preliminary work: the mold is finished by cleaning and waxing "spraying the shell" and the first few layers are manually laminated
Start the vacuum adsorption workflow: block the opening where it is needed》 Composite felt overlay》 Reinforcement sticking》 Composite felt overlay》 Diversion net arrangement and laying》 Vacuum bag mold sealing》 Diversion feed pipe / exhaust pipe arrangement and laying》 Connect the feed and the installation of the resin collector "Leak test" Turn on the vacuum pump "Check the working status" The product is completed
Vacuum Equipment-Vacuum Pump / Gas Tank
One of the composite felt plies
Composite felt layer two
1. Composite felt layup is the lay-up work before vacuuming . The composite felt needs to be layered layer by layer using special spray glue according to the requirements of the stacking plan.
One of the reinforcement materials
Reinforcement sticking two
2. Reinforcement material adhesion The reinforcement material is a supplementary material for the thickness of the hull. Generally, a foam sheet with PVC form is used, and it is adhered according to the requirements of the lamination plan.
3. The composite felt layer is the composite felt layer after the reinforcement.
One of the leak tests after the vacuum bag mold is sealed
Leak test after vacuum bag mold sealing
4. After the vacuum bag mold sealing composite felt is laid out, cover the vacuum bag mold and fix the bag mold with sealant, in order to ensure that there will be no air leakage when vacuuming, and test with a vacuum leak detector until it is completely sealed.
One of the vacuum pump working vacuum
Vacuum pump work vacuum
Vacuum pump working vacuum 3
The fourth part of vacuum pumping
5. The vacuum pump starts to work. After the sealing test is completed, check the feed pipe / exhaust pipe, etc. After the vacuum system is connected, turn on the vacuum pump and start the vacuum work, and observe the resin introduction status at any time ... The flow is completely completed.
The resins used in the manufacture of general FRP yachts are: o-phthalic polyester resin, m-benzene polyester resin, vinyl resin and epoxy resin. Vinyl resins are mostly used in vacuum adsorption molding in China, and vinyl ester resins have an elongation of more than 5%, tensile strength reaches 11,800 psi, and its water resistance is greater than that of o-phthalic polyester resins and The m-benzene type polyester resin has many advantages, such as high structural strength and not easy to generate bubbles. Epoxy resins are used in the most sophisticated foreign-made ship puppets. Of course, the cost is higher. At present, it is still rare in China.
The vacuum adsorption method simultaneously recovers the excess resin through the resin collector to effectively save the resin consumption.
The construction of the vacuum adsorption method is that the flow of the resin is sealed under vacuum pressure. All air bubbles are sucked together with the flowing resin during vacuuming, and there is no problem of air bubbles remaining.
Due to the construction of the vacuum adsorption method, all the resins work in a closed condition, and the styrene monomer content is not released. It is zero pollution to the atmosphere, which is one of the most environmentally friendly construction methods for FRP manufacturing.
Vacuum adsorption molding method is actually not too difficult glass fiber reinforced plastic manufacturing method, as long as step by step, every procedure must be checked before the next process is completed, and rigorous construction in turn can complete the structure with high strength, lighter weight and construction FRP products with short time and lower cost.